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Concrete and paving glossary
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Concrete and paving glossary - D

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A process used on concrete, masonry or stone surfaces to repel water, the main purpose of which is to prevent the coated surface from absorbing rain water while still permitting moisture vapor to escape from the structure. (Moisture vapor readily penetrates coatings of this type.) "Dampproofing" generally applies to surfaces above grade; "waterproofing" generally applies to surfaces below grade.

Darby (derby, derby float, derby slicker)

A stiff straightedge of wood or metal used to level the surface of wet concrete. A portable machine with large paddles like fan blades used to float and finish concrete floors and slabs. A large power-driven machine mounted on wheels that ride on steel pavement forms and is used to finish concrete pavements. See screed and float.

Derated concrete

Concrete that has had a gas-forming chemical added to it so that when it sets it contains many air holes and is lightweight.


A material capable of holding finely ground particles in suspension. Used as a slurry thinner or grinding compound. See slurry.

Division plate

A concrete forming accessory used to create a break in a concrete sidewalk or curb and gutter. This engineered break minimizes the chances of the poured concrete cracking due to the surrounding ground shifting as a result of variety of factors including freezing, thawing, or heat expansion.

Division plate (full)

Full plates are used as bulkheads in the curb and gutter system and also are used to hold expansion material during concrete placement.

Division plate (punched for dowel)

Division plates punched for dowel are full division plates with slots punched on the bottom to accommodate the use of dowels or rebar. The punched slots hold the dowels or rebar in place during placement and prevents the material from floating in the placement. See dowel and rebar.

Division plate (skeleton)

Skeleton division plates are used to support the curbface form and add support for the curb and gutter system. See curb face form.

Skeleton division plate - illustration

Division plate (slotted for rebar)

Also known as an S/B division plate. Division plates with slots for rebar provide the contractor with the ability to ensure the rebar will stay exactly where it is positioned into a curb and gutter placement, eliminating problems with the final rebar positioning.

Division plate slotted for rebar - illustration



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The acronym for the Department of Transportation.


A cylindrical piece of stock inserted into holes in adjacent pieces of material to align and/or attach the two pieces. See rebar and reinforced concrete.

Dowel-bar reinforcement

Short sections of reinforcing steel that extend from one concrete placement into the next. They are used to increase strength in the joint. See dowel, rebar, and reinforced concrete.

Dowel lubricant

A lubricant applied to dowels placed in adjoining concrete slabs to allow longitudinal movement in expansion joints. See dowel, expansion joint, and rebar.

Dowel screw

A threaded dowel. See dowel.

Dry concrete

Concrete that has a low water content, making it relatively stiff. The effects are a lower water-cement ratio, less pressure on forms, lower heat of hydration, and a consistency that allows for placement on a sloping surface. See heat of hydration.

Dry pack

A low-slump grout tamped into the space in a connection between pre-cast concrete members. See slump and pre-cast concrete.

Dry shake (dry topping)

A concrete surface treatment, such as color, hardening, or antiskid, which is applied to a concrete slab by shaking on a dry, granular material before the concrete has set and then troweling it in. See shake-on hardener and troweling.

Drying shrinkage

Contraction caused by the loss of moisture, particularly in concrete, mortar, and plaster. See shrinkage.

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